Can You Ace The 2015 Healthy Living Quiz?
How much do you know about evidence-based healthy living? Test yourself (no "acing" necessary) and learn more about how to improve your health by taking our 2015 quiz. (You'll find the answers right after the questions.)1How many minutes of moderate aerobic exercise (which feels "fairly light to somewhat hard") each week are considered optimal for human health?
A. 150 minutes of moderate exercise weekly (2.5 hours/week)
B. 180 minutes of moderate exercise weekly (3 hours/week)
C. 300 minutes of moderate exercise weekly (5 hours/week)
D. 360 minutes of moderate exercise weekly (6 hours/week)2Getting 150 minutes of moderate exercise weekly is associated with which of these health benefits (according to the American College of Sports Medicine)?
A. 25% - 50% reduced risk of heart disease
B. 25% - 50% reduced risk of diabetes
C. 25% - 50% reduced risk of prostate, breast, and colon cancer
D. All of the above3The American College of Sports Medicine advises all adults to strength train each of their 5 major muscle groups 2 or 3 times per week to halt and even reverse the muscle fiber/strength losses associated with aging. What are those 5 major muscle groups?
A. Torso muscles, shoulder muscles, neck muscles, hip and thigh muscles, leg and foot muscles
B. Torso muscles, shoulder muscles, back muscles, hip and thigh muscles, leg and foot muscles
C. Torso muscles, arm and forearm muscles, back muscles, hip and thigh muscles, leg and foot muscles
D. Torso muscles, shoulder muscles, arm and forearm muscles, hip and thigh muscles, leg and foot muscles4What single strength-training exercise will train all of the lower body major muscle groups (needed for adults to maintain functionality and independence as they age)?
A. Forward lunges
C. Leg raises
D. Deadlifts5What two strength-training exercises will train all of the upper body major muscle groups, and the core (according to the Mayo Clinic’s Mayo Medical School)?
A. Chest press and shoulder press
B. Shoulder press and arm raises
C. Push-ups and pull-ups
D. Bicep curls and arm raises6How much protein should healthy older adults (65+) consume daily to help prevent age-related loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia), a common condition linked to falls, fractures, and premature death?
A. 0.36 grams per pound of body weight (e.g., 43 grams for a 120-pound individual and 58 grams for a 160-pound person)
B. A range of .45 grams/pound of body weight to .54 grams/pound (e.g., 54 — 65 grams for a 120-pound individual and 72 — 86 grams for a 160-pound person)
C. A range of.54 grams/pound of body weight to .68 grams/pound (e.g., 65 — 82 grams for a 120-pound individual and 86 — 109 grams for a 160-pound person)
D. All protocols will work equally well7After older adults strength train, taking which of these protein options results in maximum muscle protein synthesis/more muscle mass?
A. 20 grams of whey protein isolate
B. 40 grams of whey protein isolate
C. 20 grams of casein protein
D. 40 grams of casein protein8Following which 6 lifestyle habits can prevent more than 75% and up to 85% of all heart-disease diagnoses (according to studies worldwide)?
A. Don’t smoke. 2. Be active. 3. Control weight. 4. Don’t drink alcohol. 5. Get 7 hours sleep on average. 6. Get 5+ servings of produce daily.
B. Don’t smoke. 2. Be active. 3. Control weight. 4. Drink alcohol in moderation. 5. Get 7 hours sleep on average. 6. Get 5+ servings of produce daily.
C. Don’t smoke. 2. Be active. 3. Control weight. 4. Drink alcohol in moderation. 5. Get 7 hours sleep on average. 6. Get 3+ servings of produce daily.
D. Don’t smoke. 2. Be active. 3. Control weight. 4. Don’t drink alcohol. 5. Get 7 hours sleep on average. 6. Get 3+ servings of produce daily.9Which of these statements about HDL and LDL cholesterol are true, according to preventative cardiologists?
A. Two people can have the same LDL ("bad cholesterol") number, but one may have a much higher risk for a heart attack and the other may not have much risk at all.
B. Having a high HDL ("good cholesterol") number is not necessarily indicative of good health.
C. Doctors are confused about whether medications that raise HDL are of any value.
D. All of the above10New 2015 research indicates that following the MIND diet (Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay) is associated with a 53% reduced risk of getting Alzheimer’s, and following it more moderately is linked to a 35% reduced Alzheimer’s risk (association, not causation data). Which of these is not a component of the MIND diet?
A. 3+ servings of whole grains, a salad, 1 other vegetable, and a glass of wine daily
B. Berries every other day or so
C. Nuts as snacks once a week
D. Fish at least once a week11Which of these diets has been associated with a 42% reduced risk of colorectal cancer (according to a study published in 2015)?
D. Pesco-vegetarian12Which of these statements about our bacteria and our brains is false (according to emerging clinical research into the gut-brain connection)?
A. The vast majority of the 100,000,000,000,000 bacteria residing in our bodies live in our guts.
B. Each of us has a unique concoction of gut bacteria.
C. Having an unhealthy concoction of gut bacteria has been linked to depression.
D. Gut bacterial composition is determined by heredity, birth, and weaning, and cannot be modified.13Which of these statements concerning exercise and depression is false (based on studies conducted throughout the world)?
A. The American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association recommend exercise to treat depression.
B. Exercise combined with antidepressants has been shown effective in treating major depression.
C. Sedentary adults who begin exercising are likely to experience depression relief after 2 -3 weeks.
D. Doing mixed exercises (both resistance and aerobic) appears to be more effective in alleviating depression than aerobic exercise alone.14One expert strategy for weight loss/maintenance is to eat more healthfully satiating foods you love, so you are less tempted by bodily urges day to day. Which of these essential nutrients is considered the most satiating, helping people feel the fullest?
D. Sugar15Which of these physical activities have been shown to lead to the most weight loss (based on a study reviewing the weight-loss literature for best practices)?
A. High-intensity strength training
B. High-intensity aerobic exercise
C. High-intensity strength training and high-intensity aerobic exercise
D. Low-intensity aerobic exercise sustained over a prolonged time period16Some dietary supplements do not contain what is touted on the bottle, or include unidentified substances. How can a consumer best determine the manufacturing quality of a dietary supplement, free of charge?
A. Check for a cGMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) label on the bottle
B. Check for a NSF (NSF International) or USP (US Pharmacopeal Convention) label on the bottle
C. Check Consumer Reports or Consumerlabs.com
D. Check the company’s website for reliable product endorsements
2015 Healthy Living Quiz Answers
Q1. Answer: C. Getting 300 minutes of moderate exercise weekly appears to be optimal. While some 2015 studies suggest higher amounts of exercise may offer additional heart disease protection, the bulk of the exercise research to date indicates that 5 hours of moderate aerobic exercise weekly is associated with the best health outcomes.
Q2. Answer: D. Getting 150 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise weekly (the general U. S physical activity recommendation) is associated with a 25% - 50% reduced risk of heart disease and diabetes, as well as prostate, breast, and colon cancer.
Q3. Answer: D. The body’s major muscle groups are torso muscles, shoulder muscles, arm and forearm muscles, hip and thigh muscles, leg and foot muscles. Their individual muscles are as follows: torso muscles (back and abdominal), shoulder muscles (deltoids, latissimus dorsi, trapezius, pectoralis major, serratus anterior, and rotator cuff), arm and forearm muscles (elbow flexors and extensors, wrist flexors and extensors), hip and thigh muscles (gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, hamstrings, adductors, and quadriceps femoris), leg and foot muscles (gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, and brevis).
Q4. Answer: B. Doing squats will fully train all of your lower body muscle groups. Squats strengthen your back, hips, legs, and buttocks. Other benefits include improved posture, finer muscle tone, the ability to lift more weight. Over time, these lead to greater bone density for osteoporosis prevention, increased metabolism, and a better body composition, which typically improves health-related biomarkers and overall health.
Q5. Answer: C. Doing both push-ups and pull-ups will strength-train all of the upper body’s major muscle groups (shoulder, arm, and forearm muscles) as well as the torso muscles (core and back).
Q6. Answer: B. In 2013, the PROT-Age Study Group, consisting of world experts in various specialties (geriatric medicine, internal medicine, endocrinology, nutrition, exercise physiology, gastroenterology, and renal medicine) concluded that healthy older adults 65+ should consume a range of .45 grams/pound of body weight to .54 grams/pound (for example, 54 — 65 grams for a 120-pound individual and 72 — 86 grams for a 160-pound person) to help prevent age-related loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) associated with premature death. Notes: Answer A represents the Recommended Daily Allowance, which was derived from studies of young men and has since been shown to be insufficient for older adults. Answer C represents the PROT-Age Group’s protein recommendations for older adults with acute or chronic disease, shown to require even higher levels of protein.
Q7. Answer: B. Older adults, average age 71, who took either 20 or 40 grams of whey protein isolate, a fast-acting protein, after resistance exercise had significantly greater muscle synthesis than those who took 10 grams or no whey. The 40-gram group, however, had a 30%+ increase in muscle protein synthesis compared to the 20-grammers. Taking casein and other proteins may also be effective, but when casein was compared to whey in head-to-head studies on older adults, whey was the winner.
Q8. Answer: B. According to studies worldwide, more than 75% and up to 85% of heart disease diagnoses can be prevented by following these 6 steps: 1. Don’t smoke. 2. Be active. 3. Control weight. 4. Drink alcohol in moderation. 5. Get 7 hours sleep on average. 6. Get 5+ servings of produce daily. The alcohol component encompasses either one ounce of hard liquor, five ounces of wine, or eight ounces of beer.
Q9. Answer: D, All of the above. Two people can have the same LDL number, but one may have a much higher risk for a heart attack and the other may not have much risk at all. What matters more in predicting a heart event are the number of LDL particles and their size, both of which can be measured by an advanced cholesterol panel. While early studies indicated that having a high HDL cholesterol number is indicative of good health, in practice cardiologists now regularly see people with high HDL numbers who have calcification and artery plaque. Many doctors are uncertain whether medications that raise HDL are in fact benefitting patients.
Q10. C. The MIND Diet (Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay), associated with a 53% or 35% reduced risk of getting Alzheimer’s depending upon the level of dietary adherence, has the following 5 components:
- Three or more servings of whole grains, a salad, one other vegetable, and a glass of wine daily
- Beans every other day or so
- Poultry and berries at least twice a week
- Nuts as snacks most days (Note: not once a week)
- Fish at least once a week
Q11. Answer: D. A 2015 study of 77,700 American 7th Day Adventists (many of whom follow a vegetarian or semi-vegetarian diet) found that the pesco-vegetarians had a 42% reduced risk of getting colorectal cancer. The vegetarians had a 21% reduced risk, which was not significant given the number of cancer diagnoses avoided per 1,000 study participants.
Q12. Answer: D. While our gut microenvironments are strongly influenced by heredity, birth, and weaning, we can change this bacterial composition through lifestyle interventions such as diet. Five small, randomized trials, for example, have shown, that consuming a probiotic yogurt with active cultures helped reduce depression symptoms in very different populations. Other probiotic foods that may contain live cultures include sauerkraut, kefir, kimchee, miso, and kombucha. Meanwhile, eating prebiotic foods such as onions, garlic, bananas, and dandelion greens, which serve as a source of nourishment for «desirable» gut bacteria, can help build up healthy gut populations.
Q13. Answer: C. Exercise research it takes time to build up a fitness level that makes physical activity enjoyable and leads to an improved outlook. Why results vary, in general, 2 — 3 weeks is not sufficient to make a significant difference. Four-week exercise studies have led to lessened symptoms, but a meta-analysis found larger depression relief in patient trials of 10+ weeks. All the other statements are true: The American Psychological Association and American Psychiatric Association endorse exercise as an additional treatment modality for depression; exercise combined with antidepressants has been shown effective in treating major depression in some individuals; and doing mixed exercises (resistance and aerobic) has better depression-alleviating results than aerobic exercise alone.
Q14. Answer: A. Protein is the most satiating nutrient. Dr. Yoni Freedhof recommends that individuals eat 20+ grams of protein at every meal, and 10+ grams of protein and 150+ calories per snack to help control hunger.
Q15. Answer: A. While it might seem counter-intuitive, an analysis of 66 population-based studies and 162 intervention groups found that zeroing in on high-intensity strength training alone produced the greatest weight losses. This was particularly the case when participants did 2-to-3 sets of 6-to-10 reps of whole body and free-weight exercises at an intensity of 75% or more of what’s called one rep maximum—the maximum amount of force they could generate in each of their contractions. Building muscle mass is best at changing the body’s metabolic rate, affecting how efficiently a person burns off calories.
Q16. Answer B. A consumer can best determine supplement manufacturing quality/accurate representation of supplement contents by finding an NSF (NSF International) or USP (US Pharmacopeal Convention) label on the supplement bottle or checking whether the supplement company is on NSF International’s list of verified companies (see the NSF website). Both NSF and USP are independent, third-party investigators hired by supplement companies to conduct yearly (USP) ortwice-yearly (NSF) audits of their operations. The majority of supplements, however, are not NSF or USP audited. The cGMP label means the company has agreed to abide by the FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practices. In principle this is indicative of high quality, but since the FDA doesn’t have the person power to enforce cGMP, consumers can’t be certain companies are abiding by what they put on their label. Consumer Reports and consumerlabs.com sometimes also provides product testing information, for a subscription fee. The supplement company’s website, and contacting the manufacturer, are other avenues if needed.
How did you do? What did you learn? Comments are welcomed. And stay tuned for more evidence-based healthy living coverage in 2016!